LAM identifies the sources of nutrients and other pollutants (from point and diffuse sources) and predicts the impacts of sewage treatment improvements on daily nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) concentrations as climate and river flows change. It is used by water managers and regulators, as well as researchers.
LAM is a statistical model that uses actual (empirical) measurement data for water flow and water quality. It apportions sources of nutrients and other pollutants and predicts impacts on N and P loads of changing sewage treatment regimes, climate and water flows. It does not require other catchment and land use information. LAM outputs feed into the UKCEH Eutrophication Risk Model (see separate catalogue entry).
LAM was first developed in 2005. By 2007, the model was improved to give more robust results by removing one of the coefficients. In 2017, LAM was added as a component to the Eutrophication Risk Model, to predict phosphorus concentrations resulting from climate-driven flow changes (Future Flows datasets) and improvements to sewage treatment. In 2020, an R version of the model was developed.
LAM only requires actual (empirical) flow and water quality data, and does not need catchment and land use information for its operation. Other institutes in Ireland and China have since developed their own slightly different versions of the LAM.
LAM was developed by UKCEH.
LAM is open access: available to use at no cost (in Excel or R versions) by request to the model owner (who can offer instructions and support).
Development of LAM was funded by: UKRI-NERC National Capability (UK-SCAPE programme and Thames Initiative); Environment Agency (EA_ERM project); and Thames Water (resource options project).
LAM is used in the UK by UKCEH and other researchers, together with the Environment Agency and Water Companies. International users include China, Canada, Iran, India and Ireland.