Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) including WHAM Freshwater Toxicity (WHAM-FTOX) version and Parsimonious Speciation of Metals in soils (POSSMs)

The WHAM family of models predict the forms of metals present in soil and water. They simulate chemical reactions that occur when metals enter soil and water systems; particularly how metals bind to humic substances, the most dominant form of non-living organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The models are used for environmental risk assessment: (1) to understand the behaviour of metals in soil and water, and what controls their solubility; and (2) to predict how metal chemistry influences their toxicity to living organisms in soil and water.