Marsden, K.A. et al

Urination data for Welsh Mountain ewes grazing upland and lowland pastures in North Wales, 2016

The data contains urination metrics including frequency, volume, chemical composition, estimated urine patch N loading rates and metabolomics profile of individual urine events from sheep (Welsh Mountain ewe) grazing a semi-improved upland pasture and a lowland improved pasture located in North Wales, UK. Urine collection studies were run in the spring, summer and autumn of 2016 for the semi-improved site and in autumn of 2016 on the lowland improved pasture. Sheep were housed in urine collection pens and while in the pens, each individual urine event was collected and stored separately.

The study was conducted as a wider part of the NERC funded Uplands-N2O project (Grant No: NE/M015351/1). The frequency, volume and chemical composition of individual urine events has implications for nitrogen losses from the grazed pasture ecosystem, including emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide, and nitrate leaching.

Publication date: 2021-04-22

Get the data

This dataset is available under the terms of the Open Government Licence

Format of the data: Comma-separated values (CSV)

You must cite: Marsden, K.A.; Lush, L.; Holmberg, J.A.; Whelan, M.J.; King, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Charteris, A.F.; Cardenas, L.M.; Jones, D.L.; Chadwick, D.R. (2021). Urination data for Welsh Mountain ewes grazing upland and lowland pastures in North Wales, 2016. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.



Study area
Temporal extent
2016-03-01    to    2016-10-31

Provenance & quality

Barren Welsh Mountain ewes (n = 6) were acclimatised on their respective pastures by allowing them to graze freely for five days prior to urine collection. Typically, between the hours of 10:00 and 16:00 the sheep were held in urine collection pens, which had slatted flooring raised above the ground and a urine collection tray located beneath. This allowed for the collection and storage of individual urine events from the individual sheep. Sheep were fed ad libitum while in the pens with cut and carried feed from the same respective pastures. Samples of the feed were retained and sent for forage analyses by Sciantec Analytical (Cawood Scientific Ltd., North Yorkshire, UK). Measurements of sheep urine frequency and volume were recorded in the field, including time and date of each urine event. These were extrapolated to provide urine parameters including an estimate of daily frequency, daily volume and daily N excretion and N loading rates per urine patch. Upon return to the laboratory the urine samples were stored frozen before being analysed for their chemical constituents including the urine pH, EC, total organic C, total N, urea, nitrate, ammonium, amino acid, allantoin, creatinine, uric acid, hippuric acid, benzoic acid, Ca, Na and K contents. The dataset also contains individual urine event metabolomics profile for a subsample of the urine for spring compared to summer (semi-improved site) and for the autumn semi-improved pasture compared to autumn improved pasture. The data also includes meteorological data for each study. Readers are directed to the supporting documentation for further analytical details and quality control procedures for the measurements undertaken.


This dataset is included in the following collections

Nitrous oxide emissions from livestock urine in upland grasslands in North Wales, UK

Correspondence/contact details

Dr Karina Marsden
Bangor University


Marsden, K.A.
Bangor University
Lush, L.
Swansea University
Holmberg, J.A.
Bangor University
Whelan, M.J.
University of Leicester
King, A.J.
Swansea University
Wilson, R.P.
Swansea University
Charteris, A.F.
Rothamsted Research, North Wyke
Cardenas, L.M.
Rothamsted Research, North Wyke
Jones, D.L.
Bangor University
Chadwick, D.R.
Bangor University

Other contacts

NERC EDS Environmental Information Data Centre
NERC Environmental Information Data Centre
Rights Holder
Bangor University

Additional metadata

Topic categories
Animal behaviour
Habitats and Biotopes
Natural Environment Research Council Award: NE/M015351/1
Spatial representation type
Tabular (text)
Spatial reference system
OSGB 1936 / British National Grid
Last updated
18 May 2022 12:28