This series contains data on adaptive trait variation in the economically and ecologically important tree species Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from an ongoing long term multisite, population-progeny, common garden experiment. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate standing genetic diversity, quantify plastic and genetic components of trait variation, and to provide an ongoing test of genetic variation against changing environmental conditions. The datasets include quantitative and qualitative traits measured for ten ‘mother’ trees from each of 21 Caledonian pinewoods in 2007 and for their progeny, which were grown in three different nurseries (from 2007 to 2012) and then transplanted to one of three field sites in contrasting environments in Scotland (2012). The experiment was set up by the James Hutton Institute, with funding from the Scottish Government’s Rural & Environment Science & Analytical Services Division, through their Strategic Research Programmes (2006-2011, 2011-2016 and 2016–2022), and by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Forest Research with ongoing data collection funded by NERC (project GAPII NE/K012177/1), and the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative (project PROTREE BB/L012243/1: BBSRC, DEFRA, ESRC, the Forestry Commission, NERC and the Scottish Government). The trial is managed as a long term study by The James Hutton Institute, UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Forest Research working in partnership.