Abundance of weeds in lowland arable fields, 2006-2009 - RELU Management options for biodiverse farming

This data collection results from abundance surveys of 7 species of weeds in ca. 500 lowland arable fields in 49 farms over three years. Each field was divided into large grids of 20x20 metre cells, and the density of seven species was estimated three times a year. The study is part of the NERC Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) programme. In the context of changing external and internal pressures on UK agriculture, particularly those associated with the ongoing reform of the EU Common Agricultural Policy, it is imperative to determine whether all of the various dimensions of sustainability - including the relevant economic and environmental objectives as well as social and cultural values - can be integrated successfully at the farm and landscape levels. Although the ways in which economic, technological, and regulatory changes are likely to affect the profitability and management of farms of varying size are reasonably well understood, there is not the knowledge or understanding to predict the resulting effects on biodiversity. For example, the effect of changes in arable farming practices on field weeds and, in turn, on habitats and food supply required to sustain farm birds is a case in point. This knowledge is critical, however, if we are to understand the ecological consequences of changes in agricultural policy. Furthermore, it is also important if we are to design and justify changes in farming methods that can not only enhance nature conservation, but do this is ways that are practical and appealing from a farmer's point of view. This understanding is essential if we are to achieve an agriculture that is sustainable in both economic and environmental terms and is widely perceived to have social and cultural value. A consistent theme in all components of this research project is to understand the behaviour (of farmers, weeds or birds) and then use this information to produce predictive models. Whilst there have been a number of models of economic behaviour, weed populations and bird populations - including many by the research team here - the really novel component of this research is to integrate these within one framework. Farmer interviews on economic attitudes and preferences associated with and importance of different land-use objectives to lowland arable farmers are available at the UK Data Archive under study number 6728 (see online resources). Further documentation for this study may be found through the RELU Knowledge Portal and the project's ESRC funding award web page (see online resources).

Publication date: 2013-07-23


Study area
Temporal extent
2006-09-01    to    2009-12-31

Supplemental information

Other useful information regarding this dataset:

Complementary survey data from this same research project.
Providing project information and links to outputs and publications
Freckleton, R. P., Sutherland, W. J., Watkinson, A. R., & Stephens, P. A. (2008). Modelling the effects of management on population dynamics: some lessons from annual weeds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(4), 1050-1058.

Provenance & quality

Research funded by Economic and Social Research Council, Natural Environment Research Council and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. Award Number: RES-227-25-0025 Survey of arable weeds in ca. 500 fields in 49 farms over three years. Each field was divided into large grids of 20x20 m cells, and the density of seven species was estimated three times a year. Categorical abundance (0, low, medium, high, very high) of 7 weed species in 20x20 m grid cells in 20x20 m grid cells in 2-4 ha per field. The area was picked to maximise efficiency in order to decrease between-field transit time. The samples are random in the sense that nothing was known about their weed density beforehand.

Correspondence/contact details

Queensborough, S.
University of Sheffield, Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences


Freckleton, R.
University of Sheffield, Dept. of Animal and Plant Science
Queenborough, S.
University of Sheffield, Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences

Other contacts

Environmental Information Data Centre


Spatial reference system
WGS 84


Topic categories
Environment , Farming
agricultural land,  agricultural policy,  arable farming,  Bedfordshire,  biodiversity,  birds,  conservation of nature,  Eating Biodiversity: An Investigation of the Links between Quality Food Production and Biodiversity Protection,  environmental conservation,  farming systems,  land use,  Lincolnshire,  modelling,  Norfolk,  Rural Economy and Land Use Programme,  weeds
Land Use