Provenance & quality
Data for the ACES project were collected in three districts of Mozambique representing three different social-ecological contexts. Marrupa District in Niassa Province has low levels of infrastructure and livelihoods are characterised by dependence on subsistence rather than commercial agriculture. In contrast, Gurué District in Zambezia Province is one of the main commercial crop producing regions of Mozambique, with crops including soya, pulses and sunflower primarily derived from smallholder producers. Mabalane District in Gaza Province is characterised by high dependence of livelihoods on production of charcoal, primarily for supply to the capital city Maputo.
A total of 27 villages were chosen for inclusion in the survey based upon scoping visits: 7 in Malabane, 10 in Gurué and 10 in Marrupa. The ACES project followed a ‘space-for-time’ substitution approach, with villages selected at different intensities of the dominant land use in each of the three districts (specifically charcoal in Mabalane, soya in Gurué and tobacco in Marrupa). The chosen villages within each district displayed, as far as possible, similar soil and vegetation types, and had a leader who was resident in the village.
The ACES survey used the definition of a household as people ‘eating from the same pot’ . Different household sampling strategies were used in the three study districts: in Malabane, a census of all households was attempted as villages were relatively small, whereas in Marrupa and Gurué stratified random sampling was employed with the aim of oversampling the rich and very poor households.