This dataset contains daily and sub-daily hydrometeorological and soil observations from COSMOS-UK (cosmic-ray soil moisture) monitoring network from October 2013 to the end of 2019. These data are from 51 sites across the UK recording a range of hydrometeorological and soil variables.
Each site in the network records the following hydrometeorological and soil data at 30 minute resolution: Radiation (short wave, long wave and net), precipitation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, soil heat flux, and soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC), measured by point senors at various depths.
Each site hosts a cosmic-ray sensing probe; a novel sensor technology which counts fast neutrons in the surrounding atmosphere. In combination with the recorded hydrometeorological data, neutron counts are used to derive VWC over a field scale (COSMOS VWC), at two temporal resolutions (hourly and daily).
The presence of snow leads to erroneously high measurements of COSMOS VWC due to all the extra water in the surrounding area. Included in the daily data are indications of snow days, on which, the COSMOS VWC are adjusted and the snow water equivalent (SWE) is given.
The potential evapotranspiration (PE), derived from recorded hydrometeorological and soil are also included at daily resolution.
Two levels of quality control are carried out, firstly data is run through a series of automated checks, such as range tests and spike tests, and then all data is manually inspected each week where any other faults are picked up, including sensor faults or connection issues. Quality control flags are provided for all recorded (30 minute) data, indicating the reason for any missing data.
This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability.
Hydrometeorological and soil observations are recorded at sites around the UK using an array of sensors. Every hour, the raw data collected is sent to UKCEH in Wallingford, where it is subject to quality control. Soil volumetric water content data are derived from 30 minute hydrometeorological data and data from the cosmic-ray sensing probe by Python scripts run every hour. The data are calculated using the method outlined in Evans et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10929). Snow water equivalent are derived by Python scripts at the end of the day from the hydrometeorological data according to Wallbank et al. (2020, https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019EGUGA..2116420W/abstract). Potential evapotranspiration data are derived by Python scripts at the end of the day from the hydrometeorological data according to the Penman-Monteith method (FAO 56, http://www.fao.org/3/X0490E/x0490e00.htm).
All data, that is raw, quality controlled and derived, is saved in an Oracle database.
See supporting documentation for further information.