Sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) data for the UK (2011-2013)

This resource is made available under the terms of the Open Government Licence

Smith, R.I.; Dore, A.J.; Tang, Y.S.; Stedman, J.R. (2017)

These datasets provide Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 2011 to 2013.

The data consist of deposition values for sulphur, oxidised nitrogen and reduced nitrogen, and base cations. Total deposition is the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition.

Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation everywhere, and (ii) forest everywhere. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also calculated. The habitat-specific data are recommended for use with critical loads for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The work in generating and compiling the dataset has been funded by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) and various Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) contracts.

Publication date: 2017-01-10 ( created 2016-11-24 )

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This resource is made available under the terms of the Open Government Licence

You must cite: Smith, R.I.; Dore, A.J.; Tang, Y.S.; Stedman, J.R. (2017). Sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) data for the UK (2011-2013). NERC Environmental Information Data Centre.


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Study area
Temporal extent
2011-01-01    to    2013-12-31

Online Resources

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Supporting information
Supporting information available to assist in re-use of this dataset

UK Acidifying and Eutrophying Atmospheric Pollutants

United Kingdom Eutrophying & Acidifying Network (UKEAP)

Journal Paper
Beswick, K.M., Choularton, T.W., Inglis, D.W.F., Dore, A.J. & Fowler, D. 2003. Influences on long-term trends in ion concentration and deposition at Holme Moss. Atmospheric Environment, 37 (14), 1927-1940.

Journal Paper
Dore, A.J., Choularton, T.W. & Inglis, D.W.F. 2001. Monitoring studies of precipitation and cap cloud chemistry at Holme Moss in the Southern Pennines. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 1; 381-390.

Journal Paper
Fowler, D., Cape, J.N., Leith, I.D., Choularton, T.W., Gay, M.J. & Jones, A. 1988. The influence of altitude on rainfall composition at Great Dun Fell. Atmospheric Environment, 22, 1355-1362.

Journal Paper
Hallsworth, S., Sutton, M.A., Dore, A.J., Dragosits, U., Tang, Y.S. & Vieno, M. 2010. The role of the indicator choice in quantifying the ammonia threat to the Natura 2000 network. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 671-687

RoTAP. 2012. Review of Transboundary Air Pollution: Acidifcation, Eutrophication, Ground Level Ozone and Heavy Metals in the UK. Contract Report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Journal Paper
Smith, R.I., Fowler, D., Sutton, M.A., Flechard, C. & Coyle, M. 2000. Regional estimation of pollutant gas deposition in the UK: model description, sensitivity analyses and outputs. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3757-3777.

Journal Paper
Stedman, J.R., Kent, A.J., Grice, S., Bush, T.J. & Derwent, R.G. 2007. A consistent method for modelling PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations across the United Kingdom in 2004 for air quality assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 161-172.

A web map service (WMS) exists for this dataset


The Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) methodology generates 5x5 km resolution maps of wet and dry deposition of sulphur, oxidised and reduced nitrogen, and base cations from measured concentrations of gases and particulate matter in air and measured concentrations of ions in precipitation. These data are collected at sites in the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutants (UKEAP) network. The site-based measurements are first interpolated to generate maps of concentrations for the UK. The ion concentrations in precipitation are combined with an annual precipitation map from the UK Meteorological Office to generate values of wet deposition. Gas and particulate matter concentration maps are combined with spatially distributed estimates of habitat-specific deposition velocities to generate dry deposition for 5 land cover categories: forest, moorland, grassland, arable and urban. The deposition to the 5 land cover categories are combined, depending on the relative proportions of different land cover categories in the 5x5 km grid square, to generate values for grid square averaged deposition. Dry deposition includes deposition of gases (Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitric Acid (HNO3), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter (sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium and magnesium) to vegetation. For critical load exceedance calculations, deposition values for moorland are applied to all non-woodland habitats, and deposition values for forest are applied to all woodland habitats.

Data processing was done using the GenStat programme and results output as text files. These were then exported as comma separated values for ingestion into the Environmental Information Data Centre.


Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Ricardo Energy & Environment

Other contacts

Point Of Contact
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology


Spatial representation type
Spatial Reference System
OSGB 1936 / British National Grid


Topic Categories
Climatology / Meteorology / Atmosphere
Atmospheric Conditions
Other keywords
base cations
Project keywords
Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED)

Dataset identifiers


Record identifier
Record created by
Bealey, B.
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford
OX10 8BB
United Kingdom
Record last updated